The following is a collection of research articles which will help to show you that the level of knowledge which exists in psychiatry today far exceeds the level of available treatment options.
It is clear to see that drugs which act in the manner of depressing a neurotransmitter system causes apoptosis (nerve cell death) in the affected system. While it is equally clear to see that drugs which excite a neurotransmitter system lead to neurogenesis in the affected regions.
This is substantiated by the scientific discovery of the being that smoking tobacco is known to reduce one's risk of developing Parkinson's disease.
It is also known that anticholinergic agents increases one's risk of developing dementia.
Or that how amphetamine use leads to neurogenesis in affected dopamine pathways.
Outside of the application of (external) agents it is known that exercise is capable of inducing levels of intense nerve cell growth or in the same notion on the proven fact of depression causing losses in nerve cells.
4. Exercise Increases Hippocampal Neurogenesis to High Levels but Does Not Improve Spatial Learning in Mice Bred for Increased Voluntary Wheel Running
As was mentioned earlier, it is shown here that exercise leads to a growth of new neurons.
5. Stress, Depression and Hippocampal Apoptosis
And shown here is that depression causes a loss of neurons.
There is also much discrepancy in the medical literature. For example one is that it is shown in scientific literature that smoking tobacco increases one's risk of developing psychosis in later life. It is then
also shown in other journal articles that smoking tobacco causes a down-regulation, that is in the sense of reducing receptor density at the D2 terminals. This contradicts the current hypothesis being humped
by every psychiatrist which I have ever met in my life, this is the dopamine hypothesis, which asserts that symptoms of psychosis are due to over expression or an overly energetic D2 receptor system.
All of these claims will be substantiated in the proceeding sections.